can be divided into three main categories, depending on constitution (constitution): mesomorph, endomorph, ectomorph. These concepts were entered into use by the American psychologist Sheldon.
As a rule, the mixed constitution types meet, at the same time one of versions dominates. The large thorax, big shoulders, long torso are characteristic of the mesomorph, at occupations strength sports it quickly and easily builds up muscle bulk. At endomorph wide bone and enough subcutaneous fat, rather slow metabolism; it gets rid of extra kilos hardly.
The third type - the ectomorph, the owner of thin figure. The thin bone, the minimum fat layer and poorly expressed extended muscles is characteristic of it. It almost never has problems of excess weight because of the accelerated metabolism, but to grow stout or gain muscle bulk to it very difficult.
When ectomorphs manage to gain muscle bulk, it looks very effectively and boldly thanks to lack of excess fat layer.
The ectomorph has difference between grasp of hips, to breast and waist is often expressed slightly. Wrists and anklebones - thin, hands and legs - thin and often extended, shoulders - narrow, thorax also narrow and flat. As a rule, growth of such slender people is higher than average.
The fact that they do not get fat belongs to pluses of the constitution, even eating too much sweet for the night, often look much younger because of slim figure. On the other hand, some ectomorphs unsuccessfully try to gain weight or to build muscles, they often need more time for recuperation, than to other people. In the period of stresses, high loadings or the forced restrictions in food they often lose also that minimum of fat which is available, and become thinner, taking sickly look. For ectomorphs surges in energy because of what they can show hyperactivity, fussiness and concern are peculiar, to suffer from insomnia. But after a while it leads to exhaustion of forces and there occurs decline, and then the person needs to ensure high-quality relaxation and rest, rather long dream. Ectomorphs should be engaged in strengthening of the nervous system, they will be done good by the counterbalancing practicians, such as meditation and yoga.
It is considered that ectomorphs most often concern introverts and are inclined to intellectual activity.
The system of physical activities for ectomorphs has the features. Power trainings have to be dynamic, but not too long, between trainings the body should give enough time for restoration. It is contraindicated to exhaust itself with aerobic loadings since they are necessary in this case not for weight loss, and only for improvement and for training of lungs and heart. To be fair It should be noted that thanks to specifics of reduction of muscle fibers the ectomorphs can have advantage before representatives of other types of the constitution in exercises on endurance. The ectomorph needs good and high-calorific nutrition several times a day, it is desirable according to the schedule, with the sufficient content of carbohydrates and fats. Of course, these carbohydrates and fats have to be useful as, leaning on candies and fried, the ectomorph can spoil to itself digestion and lose weight even more. Useful carbohydrates contain in fruit, grain and honey, and fats - in linseed and peanut butter, seeds and nuts.