The first Egyptians have begun to use the aromatic mixes similar to strong spirits. Similar structures were used by ancient Chinese, Hindus, Greeks, Romans and Arabs. Distribution of Christianity has led to fading of the perfumery industry, but at the time of the Renaissance the refined aromas have returned again to excite feelings.
Spirits in the pre-Christian world
Aromas were integral part of the Egyptian religious ceremonies, certain smells have been connected both with the birth, and with death. The archeologists who have opened Tutankhamun's tomb claimed that first of all they have felt pleasant aroma. But except various rituals, spirits played important role and in everyday life, being one more accessory of the power and wealth.
On frescos of the Ancient Egyptian temple to Edfa it is possible to see the image of distillation in aromatic oil of flowers of white lilies.
The Persian grandees umashchivat spirits hair and beards, their women added aromatic mixes to water for bathtubs. Greeks considered that spirits were invented by gods. They had special structures not only for each case, but also for different parts of body. They used aromas to cause love inclination, to aggravate perception, to stimulate appetite. In Ancient Greece the first perfumery reference books have been written.
In grave of rich Greeks surely put bottles with their favourite spirits.
In Islamic culture it was offered to use various aromas religious treatises. It is possible for this reason the first considerable progress on field of distillation and filtration of smells has been made by talented Arab chemists – Jabeer ibn Hayan and Al-Kindi. The way of release of aromatic oils from flowers by means of distillation has been invented by great Avicenna. The Arab flower perfume has been imported into Christian Europe which has forgotten about refined aromas in the 11-12th centuries by the crusaders who were coming back from campaigns.
Revival of spirits
Though revival of art of perfumery has begun approximately in the 14th century in Europe, generally in Italy, the first spirits similar to modern have been invented in the same time in Hungary. This solution of aromatic oils on spirit basis has been created by order of the queen Elizabeth Vengerskaya and has gained fame under the name of Vengerskaya of water. According to recipes these spirits contained essences of rosemary, thyme, lavender, mint, sage, orange blossom and lemon. Ekaterina Medici has brought to France which has quickly become the perfumery center of Europe, spirits in the 16th century. Laboratories of her personal perfumer René le Florentina have been connected with its rooms secret, the underpass that any formula could not be stolen in way. In the 17th century in France the guild of glovers and perfumers has been created, and in XVIII there was revolutionary break – in Germany, in Cologne, have invented cologne also known as The Cologne water. The native of Italy – Giovanni Maria Farina became the creator of the first cologne. He has thought up the fragrant mix containing no more than 5% of essential oils and also alcohols, essences and water. The popularity of cologne was so high that not only were smothered by it, it was added to bathtubs, mixed with wine, rinsed it mouth and gave enemas with it. In 1903 the first perfume which part synthetic aromas were have been released, in 1904 in spirits for the first time used the well-known aldehydes.