Main reasons for a failure of the market, external and internal features
The market is a system which functions effectively when the problem of providing the organization of trade on mutually advantageous conditions is implemented fully. The ideal market is obliged to make real any exchange if it favorable to both parties. When the market is incapable to execute the function, there is a concept of failures of the market, at the same time limited resources are distributed is inexpedient. As a rule, the insufficient competition belongs to failures of the market, also scientists rank outer effects and public benefits as this category.
The existing theory of failures of the market and outer effects
Experts say that it is possible to refer outer effects to failures of the market. At the same time the market is not capable to transfer information on the price adequately. The price policy is obliged to display the objective cost of production of goods, services. In the course of purchase sale the producer and the client participate. If their actions begin to influence third, persons, uninvolved in process of trade, then it is about such types of a failure of the market as outer effects. For example, environmental pollution.
What consequences of a failure of the market: public benefits and market fiasco
Goods and services have two main characteristics. First, this property of an exception. That is the producer offers some persons the goods, and another – no. The second property – rivalry. If unit is used by one person, then another cannot use it any more. Such features usually are considered in the conditions of existence or lack of the competition. If the goods have no properties of an exception and rivalry, then it is called public benefit. To it work of militia, the space program, care for streets of settlements and many other things belong, for example. It is known that types of failures of the market include the benefits of public value.
The competition and the main types of failures of the market in economy is insufficient
Also the insufficient competition belongs to failures of the market. Market prices have to reflect alternative cost. If harmful effects from the outside begin to be shown, the prices fall below alternative. In case the competition insufficiently high, the prices begin to raise unfairly that can cause market fiasco. Among the market failure reasons this, probably, is a one of main. The similar scheme is characteristic of the markets monopolies when the consumer begins to receive a false signal of the price. Further economically unreasonable replacements can follow. Similar situations strongly loosen the market of commodity and services, bring instability.
What other failures of the market it is possible to call?
Also failures of the market include inflation, emergence of unemployment. In these cases of action of sellers and buyers become not coordinated. It should be noted that do not refer to failures of the market uniform distribution of income, pricing regulation, adoption of the antitrust law. The state can settle a situation of market fiascoes. Laws which order use of the equipment controlling the level of environmental pollution are for this purpose adopted. Taxes which reflect damage from harmful outer effects of production can be also imposed. The property rights of owners are specified with the purpose to save the nature from pollution. Certainly, failures of the market are very important economic problem demanding search of new ways of permission.