If to consider the most general determination of career, then it will mean the accurate sequence of stages of formation of the identity of the person. And, these stages will concern all spheres of life. But most often speaking about career, we mean only the labor sphere – change of a position, the salary and professional skills.
Main types and types of career
Process of career development reflects obtaining the values and the benefits recognized by the organization and society. There are different types of career considering it in professional and business aspects. The first approach provides gradation on existence of special skills or their absence, and the second position allows to estimate the direction of development of the employee at the companies.
Distinguish two types of professional career:
Specialized. In this case the employee grows only within the profession. Gradual passing of stages is possible both in one company, and in other organizations. Observance of a framework of specialization remains the main condition. Transition between the companies is possible in case of the offer of the best conditions: increase in compensation, existence of prospects of promotion or change of other important points of work.
Unspecialized. This type is popular in Japan where believe that the head is obliged to be able to work in any department of the company. Such approach provides passing by the employee of several departments before an exit to a senior position. At the same time stay term at one position does not exceed three years.
As for business career, distinguish five main types:
- Centripetal (hidden) career. It is understood as nearness to leadership team, thanks to the personal relations with the administration and the developed business contacts out of firm. Such employee can not hold the leading post, but have broader access to information and salary above, than at other employees working in a similar position.
- Vertical look. It is understood as consecutive rise on a career ladder with increase in fee of the employee.
- Horizontal type. Assumes temporary increase in positions (management of the short-term project), expansion of duties or transition to other sphere of work.
- Intra organizational development. Each stage of professional growth (from training before retirement) passes in the company. Such type is characteristic of America and Japan.
- Interorganizational look. Means passing of stages of development of the employee in various firms.
Also some researchers allocate the step type of career which is intermediate option of growth across and verticals.