The management decision is meant as the certain step of the manager directed to performance of any action leading to achievement of a specific goal. But to you it is not necessary to include in a concept and types of management decisions only active behavior as here it is possible to refer also abstention from the head from a number of steps. Anyway, decision-making process – the integral element of work of the manager of any link. The concept of management decisions can be considered in more detail through their types.
Classification of types of management decisions
- Depending on what impact this act has on the future of the enterprise, allocate strategic and tactical types of management decisions. The first assume the general directions of development of business taking into account the purposes in a long-term outlook, the second – concrete methods by means of which it is possible to realize the first.
- On scales the main types of management decisions can be global or local. Local concern only the separate parties of work of the organization, and global cover all processes at the enterprise in general.
- On duration of the period of introduction in practice the types and types of management decisions can be till 1 year (short-term), from 1 year to 5 years (medium-term), more than 5 years (long-term).
- On degree of obligation of performance the types of management decisions are divided into focusing (definition of the direction, uniform for all), recommendatory (have no binding character), directive (are obligatory for all, are accepted by the top management).
- On the functional purpose it is possible to allocate such types and types of management decisions as controlling, i.e. estimating result, regulating, i.e. defining an execution technique, coordinating – help to concentrate efforts on a specific problem.
Besides, it is separately possible to tell about such decisions which are made in standard situations, and that are necessary in circumstances of force majeure. If to consider these types of management decisions, examples it is possible to give the following. The rule for many years acted on the enterprise in the end of the year: to release a part of profit on payment of awards for successful work of employees last year. In the current period 2 departments sabotaged work of the organization therefore she suffered losses. The head can accept the non-standard, not programmed management decision is to recede from tradition, without having paid to the staff of these departments of an award, habitual for them.
Types of management decisions on ways of their acceptance
Allocation of this type of actions of managers in separate point seems reasonable. It will give the chance to emphasize, it is how important to use in the work various approaches for achievement of effective result.
So, management decisions can be intuitive, adaptive or rational. Let's begin with adaptive, such decisions are called those strong-willed acts which are adopted according to the professional knowledge which is available for the manager, personal abilities and on the basis of life experience. Rational decisions are the acts based on the analysis of a perspective from the scientific point of view. In this case the generalized experience of experts in any given sphere becomes the base for future decision. The manager accepts intuitive decisions on the basis of own abilities to expect development of the situation and to assume a possibility of achievement and quality of result.
In whatever sphere the decision was made, it has to be proved, thought over, provided with resources, timely, professional, accurate and clear for all links of business structure.