Cumin seeds — the known component of many spicy mixes for preparation of pilaf and similar to it dishes. This spice popular in the east has many other names: kumin, Roman caraway seeds, tminovy kumin and others. In Europe prefer to cultivate caraway seeds which are similar to cumin externally. Let's get acquainted with this spice closer and we learn where it is used and what it differs from caraway seeds in.
Where spice grows
This spicy plant comes from Central Asia and is a part of many dishes of local cuisine. Cumin is actively grown up in the southeast of Asia (especially in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan), in the north of Africa and in camps of South America where it is very popular. In Europe this spice is cultivated by only the Mediterranean countries.
Whether you know? In the Mediterranean Sea there is an island, practically all covered kuminy and received the name Kimano in his honor.
Chemical composition of seeds
Cumin seeds (100 g) include such substances:
- carbohydrates — 44.24 g;
- fats — 22.27 g;
- proteins — 17.81 g;
- water — 8.06 g;
- ashes — 7.62 g.
- B4 (is well-cared) — 24.7 mg;
- With — 7.7 mg;
- RR — 4.579 mg;
- E — 3.33 mg;
- beta carotene — 0.758 mg;
- B1 — 0.628 mg;
- B6 — 0.435 mg;
- lutein with zeaxanthin — 0.432 mg;
- B2 — 0.327 mg;
- And — 0.064 mg;
- B9 — 0.010 mg;
- To — 5.4 mkg.
- potassium — 1788 mg;
- calcium — 931 mg;
- phosphorus — 499 mg;
- magnesium — 366 mg;
- sodium — 168 mg;
- iron — 66.36 mg;
- zinc — 4.8 mg;
- manganese — 3.333 mg;
- copper — 0.867 mg;
- selenium — 5.2 mkg.
In structure there are an omega fats (omega-3, an omega-6 and an omega-9) and also capric, lauric, miristinovy, palmitic and stearin nonsaturated acids. Contain up to 4% of essential oils and about 16% of gum, phytosterols.
Read also about advantage and harm of black caraway seeds and oil of black caraway seeds.
Cumin and caraway seeds: differences
Cuminum cyminum and caraway seeds (Carum carvi) belong to family Umbrella, but to its different childbirth. They are very similar by sight. Cultivate one type of caraway seeds — caraway seeds ordinary.
Seeds of caraway seeds are slightly shorter and wider than seeds of cumin, 3 x 2.5 mm in size. Standard seeds of cumin — 6 x 1.5 mm. However, now there are different grades of caraway seeds and cumin, sometimes it is difficult to distinguish them. The most reliable way to define a difference is to chew a few seeds for determination of taste. At cumin they have nut smack. Caraway seeds more spicy, it is burning - sharp with a citrus note. At its seeds stronger aroma as they contain more essential oils (up to 7%). Cumin is preferred to be used in meat dishes and sauces of east and Mexican cuisine. It is a component of different spicy mixes.
Caraway seeds are more widespread in Europe, are a part of many dishes of European cuisine. It is used in pastries, in a pickles, vegetables or mushrooms dishes. With it do drinks (teas, kvass, tinctures). Caraway seeds can suppress a smell and taste other additives therefore it is often used in dishes as the only spice.
Whole seeds of cumin are stored in optimal conditions about one year, and caraway seeds seeds — up to 7 years.
Whether you know? Seeds of caraway seeds are used by traditional and nonconventional medicine of the majority of the European countries. It possesses bile-expelling, laxative, carminative, soothing and spazmolitichesky action. It is often included in medical teas at gripes at kids, and still it stimulates a lactation. Veterinarians recommend it at gripes and a meteorizm at animals, and here for birds the fruits of caraway seeds are very toxic.
Useful influence on an organism
Thanks to availability of useful substances, cumin has such medicinal properties:
- makes positive impact on cardiovascular activity — interferes with appearance of blood clots, protects from heart attacks, does more elastic vessels, normalizes pressure;
- excellent immunomodulator which helps to struggle with viral and also bacterial diseases;
- promotes clarification of respiratory organs at inflammatory processes;
- removes toxicosis and nausea;
- protects a liver from toxins and negative impact of alcohol;
- has diuretic and laxative properties;
- improves work of a GIT, increases appetite, promotes improvement of digestion of greasy food, fights against a meteorizm, children's gripes;
- raises a lactation;
- improves brain activity — oxygenates brain tissue, well affects memory;
- good antiseptics for treatment of skin diseases;
- promotes a reproduction and raises a libido, thanks to availability of vegetable hormones;
- improves sight, strengthens an optic nerve;
- renders the warming effect;
- helps to struggle with insomnia;
- prevention of diabetes — reduces sugar level in blood, improves sensitivity of cages to insulin;
- prevention of cancer diseases.
As use in kitchen of the different countries of the world
Thanks to special tastes the seeds of cumin were widely used in cookery of all countries of the world. This spice in the east is especially popular. In cookery are applied both seeds, and powdery crushed kumin. In the form of seeds spice is used during the cooking of pilaf, baking of bread; strew with powder meat dishes and also use at preparation of sauces (for example, the Chile sauce).
- In India, cumin is a component of the known mix of spices under the name to mountains masala and also is a curry component. Hindus like to add kumin at preparation of vegetable dishes.
- Very much love this seasoning in Mexican cuisine.
- Tajiks and Uzbeks add cumin to the well-known pilaf.
- Bulgaria calls seasoning kimion and use when cooking meat, add to forcemeat.
- In the south of Moldova the seeds of a kumin often apply at fast preparation of fresh-salted cucumbers.
- In the Baltic countries, cumin is used by production of cheeses and fermented milk products.
Video: Indian cuisine - cumin a lemon Rice
Important! This spice is stored not for long — no more than a year in an integral look, and no more than a month in ground. Therefore recommend to grind cumin just before preparation of dishes with it. It is very important to store it correctly as the dampened seeds are not suitable for consumption at all.
To what dishes add
Kumin has taste of bitterness with a nut smell which becomes even more expressive when roasting or crushing. Seasoning is advised to apply fresh as at long storage it loses flavoring and useful qualities.
- Cumin is used at preparation of the first and second courses. It is added to meat dishes — pilaf, cutlets, sausages.
- Perfectly this spice is suitable for preparation of vegetables — potatoes, cabbage, peas, carrots.
- Often apply it at baking of bakery products and also at production of pizza.
- Ground kuminy often strew cold appetizers — sandwiches, salads.
- This spice add to sour-milk giving products to it of aroma and unusual taste.
There are some culinary cunnings when using a kumin:
- seasoning is added at an initial stage of cooking of hot dishes;
- recommend to add to well warmed oil before frying of vegetables or meat;
- in slightly fried look cumin increases aroma of meat.
Video: hummus with cumin
With what spices it is combined
Cumin often is a part of spicy mixes. It is perfectly combined with a coriander, cinnamon, a barberry.
- Cumin together with seeds of fennel, caraway seeds and fennel is applied to marinade at preservation of tomatoes, cucumbers and also when cooking sauerkraut.
- In flour products kumin put together with cardamom, cinnamon, a carnation and also nutmeg.
- In pilaf it is in harmony with a saffron and a barberry.
We advise to read about properties and application of spices: rosemary, basil, anisetree, oregano, anise, marjoram, asafoetida, fenugreek.
Application in traditional medicine
Thanks to the useful properties, cumin found broad application in traditional medicine:
- constant reception of a kumin in food well influences digestive organs, cardiovascular and nervous systems;
- broths and infusions apply at indigestion, children's gripes, a meteorizm; also they are advised to accept at stones in a stomach and a bladder, bronchitis, headaches, insomnia;
- as lotions infusion of cumin is recommended at different rashes, purulent formations and inflammations;
- to pregnant women, to get rid of toxicosis, recommend to chew a pinch of a kumin, and when feeding by a breast for improvement of a lactation — to take tea from this spice;
- tea from cumin — excellent prevention of viral diseases, promotes a conclusion of toxins, increases immunity.
For treatment it is possible to use the following recipes of traditional medicine:
- For improvement of warm function. To take two teaspoons of a kumin, 1.5 glasses of water, to mix and weary on a water bath about 20 minutes. To allow to infuse 30-40 minutes. To filter the received mix through a gauze and to carry out reception 3 times a day. It is also good to apply this recipe at cough and to an otkharkivaniye of phlegms.
- For cleaning of an organism. In equal parts to mix cumin, fennel, a coriander. To make one teaspoon of mix in 0.5 l of boiled water. Then to allow to infuse and accept as drink instead of tea.
- For memory improvement. One teaspoon of a kumin and one tablespoon of honey are mixed and 3 times a day carry out reception.
- At problems with a dream. A half of a teaspoon of a kumin is mixed from 250 g of warm milk; it is possible to add a little honey to improve taste. Such drink is drunk before going to bed.
As use in the cosmetic purposes
From cumin receive essential oil which found the application in cosmetology. This spice has excellent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cellulite properties, well nourishes and bleaches skin. Also helps to struggle with dandruff and promotes growth of hair. Cumin can be used in the following cosmetic recipes:
- Infusion against pigmentary spots and freckles. One tea spoon of seeds of cumin trouble a glass of the boiling water and allow to infuse half an hour. Then well filter and pour in the capacity, convenient for use. Recommend to wipe with such infusion a face twice a day.
- Mask for strengthening of roots of hair. Take on one teaspoon of kuminovy, castor, burdock oil, two eggs, two drops of essential oil of a lemon and a ylang-ylang. All fray to a homogenous mixture and rub in head skin, and then distribute on all length. In 40-60 minutes wash away shampoo. This mask also adds to hair gloss.
- Mix against pimples and inflammation of face skin. Two drops of essential oil of a kumin and ginger mix with two teaspoons of olive oil, add ground ginger on a knife tip. All well mix and smear on problem sites of skin with massage movements. In half an hour the mask is deleted.
Study recipes of house cosmetics with application of ginger.
As well as all seasonings, kumin it is necessary to use reasonably. Its excessive use can cause the following negative symptoms:
- frequent urinations — this seasoning gives diuretic effect that promotes removal from an organism of phosphorus and calcium, increases nervous excitability, can cause insomnia, dehydration;
- pressure jumps — there can be temple pain, dizziness, deterioration in a blood-groove;
- allergic reactions.
Important! At detection of the following allergic reactions — rashes and inflammations of skin, heartbeat, dryness of eyes, vomiting, breath malfunction, diarrhea — it is necessary to see at once behind consultation a doctor.
There are following contraindications to a kumin:
- the increased acidity;
- stomach ulcer of a stomach or duodenum;
- obesity (spice of a kaloriyn);
- individual intolerance;
- diabetes (reduces sugar level in blood).
These contraindications do not forbid intake of seasoning in food, just its quantity needs to be reduced. Cumin seeds — as in itself, and in mix with other spices — will be great seasoning for pilaf and soups, food from bean and vegetables. They are appropriate in many dishes of east and Mexican cuisine. With their help it is possible even to improve the health, but at the same time it is necessary to remember contraindications.