That all parameters of trench (length, width, depth, configuration of lines) corresponded to planned, it is necessary to know rules of works on loosening and dredging.
Earthwork operations - some of the most labor-consuming. To facilitate process of movement of soil and to make it more effective, the correct organization of labor and the good tool is necessary. It is possible to dig out trench in three ways: with own hand, with involvement of hired labor, by means of the equipment. For each of them there are general rules which allow to make ditch of the required size and depth in optimum terms.
Correctly executed marking – guarantee of successful work. Before forming of trench it is necessary to define its location, width, length. Construction of continuous footing or laying of underground services begin with this process. In the first case it is important to sustain precisely trench configuration as the concrete tape has to repeat lines of the bearing and not load bearing walls of the house. The marking is carried out by means of the hydrolevel not less than 5 m long, tape measure, marking laces and pegs. If it is necessary to dig out trench under continuous footing, begin with that side of the house which is turned to the street, the road or other reference point.
As it is correct to organize work
After installation of pegs with marking shnurka start preparation of the tool for digging of trench. It will be required bayonet and sovok shovels, the short scrow-bar, dense gloves with the anti-sliding surface on palms and high bell. According to marking start loosening of top layer of soil. For this purpose use spade. Strike with it vertically directed wide blows to earth surface, thereby loosening it. When thus rather large volume of soil is developed, begin its dredging. For this purpose use square-faced shovel. Dredging of the soil has to be made in strict accordance with marking. To play inadmissibly for the line laces as the correctness of removal of top layer of soil in many respects defines flatness and other parameters of future trench. In process of deepening it is required to check vertical position of sidewalls of ditch. For this purpose use construction level. Sometimes for any purposes it is required to dig out narrow ditch (for example, on shovel bayonet width). In this case dredging is made not shovel, and hand which the glove with the bell closing hand to elbow is put on. It is not recommended to use for this purpose of glove in which carry out soil loosening as they will not protect palm from hit of small particles of the soil and soon on palms painful callosities are formed. For the same reason it is impossible to remove the earth naked hand. If soil stony, it is most simply taken out by shovel with working part of the small size and short shank (for example, sapersky shovel). Loosening of dense clayey ground requires scrap or ice pick. If in process of deepening of trench water begins to act, either the device of drainage, or pumping out of liquid by means of mud pump or the fecal pump will be required.