Topmost decay of tomatoes — disease very widespread. Tomatoes with the blackened "buttocks" at least once in life were seen, probably, by each summer resident. Because of topmost decay many gardeners lose part of harvest of tomatoes nearly an every summer. Meanwhile it is not so difficult to overcome this desease on the site at the correct approach to business.
The main sign of topmost decay of tomatoes are darkened "buttocks" of unripe fruits. Some inexperienced gardeners confuse this disease with phytophthora. And it is valid, symptoms of both of these diseases are similar. However the phytophthora of tomatoes is fungal disease and develops on plants usually only in damp cool weather. Topmost decay — disease not infectious. Also it is shown on the contrary — because of lack of moisture generally during drought.
As the disease develops
At sick fruits the top (not that part where to tomato the fruit stem "fastens", namely "buttocks") at first is softened and grows white. Further the light spot which has appeared on tomato begins to darken gradually. It is connected first of all with loss of immunity of fruit. The fact is that on its softened fabrics fungi parasites very quickly settle. They that also cause darkening of thin skin. However in this case responsible actually the disease not so these fungi are. There is softening of "buttocks" of fruit in most cases just because of water shortage.
It is known that with water various nutrients are transferred to fabrics of plants. It including concerns such microelement as calcium. There is white spot on fruit just because because of water shortage it begins calcic starvation. Because of scarcity of water the plant tries to distribute rationally it by all the parts. As a result leaves begin to delay kind of on themselves part of moisture from fruits. Getting rid of the last, the plant thus just tries to survive.
Basic reasons of development of disease
So basic reason of development of such disease as topmost decay of tomatoes, is imbalance of calcium in fabrics. There is it most often when the plant lacks water. But sometimes the imbalance of calcium can be caused also by other reasons. For example, this microelement can not be enough simply in the soil. Then even in the absence of drought and timely waterings topmost decay on fruits will be shown all the same.
Also this disease often affects tomatoes at:
- the increased salt content in the earth;
- search with nitrogen, potash and magnesian fertilizers;
- too strong illumination;
- the increased acidity of the soil.
Sometimes to rotten stuff also the shortage not of calcium, and phosphorus or manganese can be cause of illness of tomatoes.
Topmost decay of tomatoes: fight measures
It will be not especially difficult to cope with this disease at the correct approach to business. It is necessary to begin treatment with removal from bush of sick fruits. Further tomatoes need to be sprayed with one-percentage solution of calcic saltpeter. To save plants from decay, usually there are enough two processings at an interval of week.
Too it is abundant you should not spray bushes with calcic saltpeter. Otherwise in fabrics of plants the potassium balance can be broken. And it in turn will strongly affect terms of maturing of fruits. It is possible to replace calcic saltpeter and with medicine of Breksil Sa. This means contains at the same time both saltpeter, and pine forest.
Besides extra root, if desired it is possible to carry out also normal fertilizing of tomatoes. In this case it is also best of all to use everything calcic saltpeter. At such way at the roots of each plant about 1 liter of one-percentage solution of this fertilizer joins.
After spraying of tomatoes by solution of kaltsiysoderzhashchy means of topmost decay on their fruits usually it is not observed until the end of season any more. However part of harvest in this case nevertheless is lost. That it did not occur, on the site surely it is necessary to carry out prevention of topmost decay. Similar procedures usually do not take too much time. Losses of harvest because of decay at correctly carried out prevention will be in the subsequent much less.
For example, topmost decay very often strikes tomatoes in the greenhouse. To save plants from this disease, when landing seedling in the closed soil it is necessary to watch that the distance between separate bushes made not less than 40-50 cm. It will prevent shortage of water and calcium. Also it is necessary to carry out pasynkovaniye of tomatoes. Obligatory this procedure is both for the greenhouse, and for the open ground. At correctly carried out pasynkovaniye the leaves will not delay from fruits water with calcium from fruits on themselves.
Sometimes topmost decay strikes tomatoes on the site even at good waterings and the correct leaving from year to year. In this case business can consist in structure of the soil. Perhaps, it on the site too sour or salted. Not to lose every year part of harvest, the owner of such kitchen garden should grow up only grades of tomatoes, resistant to topmost decay. For example, for such site not bad will be suitable, such grades of tomatoes as "White filling", "Oaklet" or Raisa.