Important role in life of plants is played by power supply. They receive almost all necessary batteries from the soil. Usually the soil under plant begins to be prepared in the fall, in September-October. The soil has to be structural (lumps with a diameter of 3-5 mm prevail), to contain all necessary batteries in the form, digestible for plants, which is rather humidified and warm.
Pogotovka of the soil
At first clean the site from the vegetable remains, weeds, then if it is required to introduce fertilizers, then evenly close up them — scatter on all surface and dig over it on depth within 22-27 cm taking into account depth of the humic horizon of the soil.
Seeds of flower ornamental plants generally small. If owing to bad preparation of the soil the seeds get deeply, then they will disjointedly ascend as the most part of sprouts are not able to punch thick soil layer and will die. As a result will appear uneven, places very thinned shoots.
After rain and watering on the soil the crust which complicates gas exchange is formed. Besides, the dense soil with crust is quickly dried up. Small loosening the soil crust collapses, weeds are destroyed, and as a result moisture remains better. Availability of soil crust on emergence of microspermous plants has especially an adverse effect. Loosening is made on depth of 5-6 cm manual rippers.
Good development of flower plants requires improvement of physical properties of the soil. The need of plant for any given mix is connected with its biological features. Earth mix is product of decomposition of the turf, leaves, manure, peat and other components which contain large amount of organic matter, and is characterized by the best physical and chemical properties.
Usually prepare the cespitose, sheet, humous and peat earth. The first of them heavy, elastic, porous, and other lungs.
Application of fertilizers
Flower ornamental plants well react to entering into the soil of fertilizers. After application of fertilizers the flowers become large, bright, considerable time keep the freshness. For plants the best fertilizer is manure. He stirs up microbiological activity of the soil, improves soil structure. Average norm of its introduction: under annual plants — 2-3 kg, under long-term — 6-9 kg on sq.m. At the same time it is necessary to use manure of the second or third year of decomposition, fresh manure of the first year of decomposition is not recommended.
Except manure as organic fertilizer it is possible to use low-lying (black) peat, bird's dung and compost.
Fertilizing of plants organic fertilizers is very effective. Liquid organic fertilizers can be prepared from mullein or chicken dung. In barrel or bucket put fresh mullein on quarter of volume, up to the top add water and properly mix. The received solution before the use is diluted with clear water by 6-8 times.
Fertilizer from chicken dung contains much more nutrients, than fertilizer from mullein.
Before fertilizing of plants at first water them and between plants do grooves of 4-5 cm in depth, then in them pour out liquid fertilizer, and as soon as it is absorbed, cover grooves with earth. Such fertilizing carry out once a week or in 10 days. At podkarmlivaniye of plants during formation of buds and blossoming it is recommended to add 4-5 g of superphosphate on one liter of solution.
Special rules of fertilizing: liquid fertilizers bring after rain or after abundant watering by clear water; it is impossible to feed up liquid fertilizers in hot weather; to fertilize only the taken roots plants, liquid fertilizer should not get on leaves of plants, constant fertilizing of perennials is made at the end of July.
Fine local fertilizer — ashes as a part of which potassium and phosphorus contain in digestible form. It has alkaline properties, usually it is applied on sour soils on 25-50 g on 1 sq.m. Also mineral fertilizers are widely applied in floriculture. Mineral fertilizer is chemical as a part of which contain one, two and more useful elements for plants in certain percentage.
In 100 g or 100 kg of mineral fertilizers 20 and more percent of useful active ingredient, the rest — component or ballast can contain. For example, in 100 kg of urea 46 kg of pure nitrogen and 54 kg of component contain. In practice the amount of the introduced fertilizer to the soil can be expressed in its physical weight or in transfer in useful active ingredient. In the first case this quantity is called norm, in the second — dose.
From nitrogen fertilizers urea, ammonium nitrate, sulfate ammonium and others are widely applied. Nitrogen fertilizers promote strengthening of growth of stalks and leaves. Abundant fertilizer them usually detains zatsveteniye of plants or they are surprised fungal diseases. All nitrogen fertilizers readily soluble in water bring in the soil shortly before crops or use as fertilizing during growth, before they should be dissolved in water. In practice in 10 l of water dissolve certain quantity of nitrogen fertilizers, then carry out fertilizing by solution approximately at the rate of 15-20 g of fertilizers of active ingredient on square meter.
Phosphoric fertilizers are of great importance for early abundant and long blossoming of plants. They are necessary for all flower plants on any soils.
Phosphoric fertilizers are recommended to be introduced under redigging, before landing and also in the form of fertilizing. Of course, their big requirement during blossoming of plants. Almost all almost insoluble, especially phosphate rock. Many phosphoric fertilizers sour therefore it is necessary to bring them in sour soils only after lime application. For fertilizing superphosphate — rather well soluble fertilizer is recommended.
Potash fertilizers are most often applied in floriculture: potash salt, sulfate potassium, chloride potassium. They affect cold resistance and growth of plants, together with phosphoric fertilizers positively affect blossoming of plants. It is better to bring them in the soil beforehand, in the fall.
Besides, to the soil it is possible to introduce complex fertilizers (nitrophoska, ammophos, nitroammofoska and others) as a part of which there are two or three batteries (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium).
The percent of maintenance of batteries in fertilizers is specified in passports which are attached to container.
Along with fertilizer of soils in creation of the normal environment of growth and development of plants essential role is played by the content of soil calcium. When it in the soil is not enough, the soil becomes sour and plants badly grow. Therefore it is recommended to bring lime of 1-2 kg on sq.m.
For normal development and growth of plants it is also necessary to bring in the soil microelements pine forest, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt and others. At lack of the soil of any microelements not only the vegetative mass of plants decreases, but also the quality of their flowers worsens. Usually they are brought in the soil much less. However they give good effect only when the soil is well provided with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and others. Their norm of entering into the soil is usually specified also in the passport of packing.