For well-drilling on country sites crews of professionals with special equipment are usually employed. However arrangement of autonomous water supply of country house in this case, unfortunately, pretty expensively manages. Therefore many owners of private residential units prefer to drill wells the hands
Before starting actually drilling of the well, the owner of country house should define where specifically on its site water is most closer to earth surface.
How to learn, where to drill
It is considered that to define location of water on the site, it is the most reasonable to use the hydrological local map. It is possible to take such document in the nearest profile department from geological engineers.
If it is not possible to receive the hydrological card, it is possible to try to use also other methods. For example, the quite good decision will be to interview the neighbors who already have wells on the sites. Water underground usually lies layers, very big on the area. And therefore in one country settlement of the well, the soils located at one level from surface, practically always have identical depth.
Also it is possible to find water on the site, having used also national method. In this case it is necessary:
- to insert necks into the earth on all site in different places glass jars of one capacity;
- to wait day;
- in the morning, till the sunrise to check all banks for availability of condensate.
In those tanks which have been established to the earth over water-bearing stratum of condensate will be much more.
What drilling techniques exist
Actually several technologies can be applied to arrangement of wells:
- rotor drilling;
- shock and rope way.
On country sites the self-made hydraulic engineering constructions usually equip with use of one their three last techniques.
What well to drill
Shakhty "on sand" in owner-occupied dwellings usually has depth of 12-50 m. However, if water is found at depth over 20-30 m, most likely, it is necessary to refuse independently drilling of the well. In this case without use of special equipment it will be possible to achieve the objective, unfortunately, hardly.
The hands on the site it is possible to drill only the mine "on sand". From artesian wells receive cleaner water and in large numbers. However such hydraulic engineering constructions usually have very much and very deep water. Limy water-bearing strata can lie at distance up to 200 m from earth surface.
Sometimes on country sites also the special superficial wells called Abyssinian wells are equipped. Such mines drill usually in case it is possible to find the water-bearing stratum lying at depth of 12-15 m.
Choice of technology
The screw technique of drilling of the well is used only on sites with not too rigid, low-loose soil. In this case the strong self-made drill is applied to arrangement of the mine. Such tool passes through soft soil perfectly. And here to break through with its use through stones it will turn out, of course, hardly.
The shock and rope technology is considered universal and can be applied on any types of soil. Only very low speed of work is considered lack of this way.
For implementation of this technology first of all it is necessary to make actually drill. It is possible to make such tool, for example, from steel rod, having welded on it at a small angle 2 knives at distance of 200 mm from edge and also the lever cross-piece. Knives for such drill are usually made of halves of steel disks.
In addition the main tool, at well-drilling the screw method uses also special high tripod with hook on rope. It is independently possible to make such construction, for example, of thick steel pipes.
Actually screw technology of well-drilling by the hands looks as follows:
- the tripod is established on the place of future mine;
- the screw with the lever joins hook;
- between two legs of tripod the cylindrical elevator with handles is fixed (like, as in wells);
- the second end of rope is fixed on the elevator.
Drilling at such way is carried out usually by two persons. Immersion of the tool in soil is made by its rotation by means of rod lever. Take out drill from soil with use of the cylindrical elevator. As soon as the tool plunges into the earth almost at all length, it is increased bar.
Drilling of the well the hands by means of pump
In this case for construction of surface facilities for the well the self-made hand drill is also used. However this tool at use of such technology is manufactured not of rod, and of steel pipe. Also in this case when drilling the pump is in addition applied. By preparation for construction of surface facilities for the well by such technique on the worksite two hitches — the filtering and main, having big sizes and depth are initially dug out. As flushing solution water with small amount of clay is used.
Drilling in this case as follows looks:
- the pump takes away water from hitch and gives it on hose to drill pipe;
- proceeding down, flushing solution softens soil and washes away it outside;
- further it comes to the filtering hitch, and then — basically where again gets pump and again moves in hose.
Shock and rope technology
In this case for construction of surface facilities for the well the special purpose tool — bailer is used. It represents the piece of thick steel pipe complemented with the sprung valve. The last at blow about the earth opens. As a result soil gets to bailer. When raising percussion instrument the earth gets enough sleep outside.
As well as when using screw method, in this case the tripod is also applied. Actually rope and shock technology in respect of realization is extremely simple. When working on arrangement of the hydraulic engineering construction the bailer at first rises on rope by tripod height, and then is released in free fall. With each such blow the well becomes deeper and deeper.
On rocky soil instead of bailer when drilling on such technology the drill spoon is used. The same tube section, but added not with the valve, and two lobes bent towards each other represents this tool. On clay soil also other shock adaptation — drill glass can be used. In this case on one of the ends of tube section the cutting edge mown inside is sharpened.
Installation of casing pipe
Regardless of the chosen way of work, after exit to water-bearing layer, at construction of surface facilities for the well perform some more operations:
- are drilled down on 1-2 m, in depth of the water carrier;
- sort boring shell;
- in casing pipe in chessboard order in four rows make drill openings;
- over pipe and openings reel up wire and fix grid from stainless steel with small cell;
- establish casing pipe to the mine.
At construction of surface facilities for the well of this type also use drive method. Perform works on drilling of Abyssinian well by means of the special purpose tool representing pipe bar of small diameter with openings and strong steel tip.
Blows when swamping make something very heavy. At the same time beat not bar top, and for example, the clip screwed on it recorded by the principle of the clamp. After performance of work the bar is just left in the mine. It in this case will also serve further as casing pipe.
Construction of surface facilities for the well
After the mine is drilled, and the casing pipe is established, the well is pumped over and start production of special protective capacity — caisson. For this purpose in most cases around casing pipe dig out ditch of 1х1 m in size and 2 m in depth. Further fill in walls and bottom of hitch with concrete, having left openings under pipe and cable. At the final stage stretch external water supply system and install the capital water giving equipment in caisson.