Brick – the most widespread construction material. He is several types, each of which has the qualities and is applied to the different purposes. For example, there are ceramic, lime, facing, clinker bricks, etc. some of which else are divided into corpulent and hollow.
They are made of clay by its roasting at t=1000oC. It is the most widespread material for construction. There are corpulent and hollow ceramic bricks. The first are intended for laying of external and internal walls of buildings and also for construction of load-carrying structures (columns, columns and so on). Proceeding from it, the corpulent brick has to have very high strength and, naturally, frost resistance. It red color also has small porosity, maximum to 13%, but it is enough for reliable hitch with solution at laying. The corpulent brick concedes in heat conductivity and walls from it demand additional warming. Heat preservation at - 30 wasps requires thickness of brick wall in 60 cm, and, for example, for bar there is enough 30 cm.
Hollow ceramic bricks have through and not through emptiness of different form (round, rectangular, square, oval) depending on the brand. Emptiness occupy up to 50% of internal volume. Because of it hollow bricks less strong, but well keep heat, and on their production less raw materials leave. They are used for laying of internal partitions, the facilitated external walls, that is those designs on which there is no heavy load. Bricks of generally red or yellow color.
These bricks are called still front or front. They are used for laying of external and internal designs, fences, the base and so on. Besides, they have decorative qualities, the wall from them turns out equal and does not demand painting, plaster or other processing. Facing bricks of different color therefore it is possible to create ornaments at laying are issued. On the characteristics they exceed some types of construction materials. So, they provide thermal insulation even in the conditions of severe winter, do not absorb moisture and self-clean during rain. The only shortcoming is the high price. But if to buy facing bricks directly from the producer, it is possible to save considerably.
Lime sand bricks
Lime sand bricks are used for laying of walls and partitions. Generally they white color, but are also color. Everything depends on composition of silicate mix and pigment which is added to it. Indicators of lime sand brick high, it possesses good sound insulation, thermal insulation and durability. To shortcomings the big moisture permeability and instability belongs to temperature drops. Therefore lime sand bricks do not use for laying of fireplaces and furnaces, pipes and the bases. But thanks to the low price, this type of construction materials is in demand.
The lime sand brick, as well as ceramic, is corpulent and hollow, that is to several openings.
The name speaks for itself, this type of bricks maintains high temperatures therefore they are applied to laying of furnaces and fireplaces and are widely used in metallurgical industry. Distinguish four types of refractory brick: - the main (from limy and magnesian mix); - quartz (from quartz sand and clay); - carbonaceous (the pressed coke); - shamotny (from refractory clay).
For furnaces and fireplaces generally take shamotny brick as it maintains rise of temperature even to 1300 wasps.
The hyper pressed bricks
Actually it already and not brick, but artificial stone as receive it from mix of cement, shredded limestone and dyes by pressing method under huge pressure. As a result construction material with high characteristics turns out. The hyper pressed bricks poorly absorb moisture, have good frost resistance (50 cycles of freezing/defrosting), maintain load of 150-300 kg of 1 sq. cm of surface and good adhesive strength with solution at laying. Besides, they do not demand additional finishing as they have excellent exterior.
They are made from high-melting clay by method of its roasting at t=1100oC and more therefore are very strong and durable. It is possible to carry sound insulation, thermal insulation, improbable durability, resistance to weather patterns to advantages of clinker bricks. Therefore they are used in construction for finishing new and at restoration of ancient buildings, for laying colon, for jewelry of windows, eaves and so on. The clinker brick is beautiful and durable therefore it very much is in demand for decorative finishing of facades.