The first minutes bloody letters entered on August 24, 1572 a phrase Massacre of St. Bartholomew in world history. Slaughter in the capital of France, by estimates of different experts, claimed the lives from 2 to 4 thousand Protestants Huguenots who gathered in Paris on Heinrich Navarrsky Bourbon and Margarita Valois's wedding.
What is the Massacre of St. Bartholomew?
Massacre, terror, civil war, religious genocide – what happened in the Massacre of St. Bartholomew difficult gives in to definition. The massacre of St. Bartholomew is extermination of political opponents by mother of the king of France Ekaterina Medici and representatives of the sort de Guizov. The queen-mother considered enemies the Huguenots headed by the admiral Gaspar de Coliñi.
After midnight on August 24, 1574 a prearranged signal – a ring of a bell of church Seong - Germaine - l'okserrua – turned Catholic Parisians into murderers. The first blood was shed by noblemen of the duke de Guiz and Swiss mercenaries. They extended de Colinia from the house, whipped with its swords and beheaded. The body was dragged across Paris and hung up for legs at Monfokon Square. In an hour the city reminded a slaughter. Huguenots were killed in houses and on streets. Scoffed at them, threw out remains on pavements and to Seine. The few escaped: by order of the king the city gate were closed.
Protestants Heinrich Navarrsky Bourbon and prince de Condé spent the night in Louvre. Only of the high-ranking guests, pardoned by the queen, they adopted Catholicism. For intimidation they were taken away on Monfokon Square and showed the spoiled admiral's body. Swisses pinned up noblemen from suite of the king of Navarre Heinrich Bourbon in beds, in magnificent rooms of Louvre.
In the morning slaughter did not stop. Mad Catholics looked for three days Huguenots on slums and suburbs. Then the wave of violence rushed in the province: from Lyon to Rouen blood for a long time poisoned water in the rivers and lakes. There were armed marauders who killed and plundered rich neighbors. Revelry of violence shocked the king. He ordered to stop disorders immediately. But bloodshed continued two more weeks.
What caused events of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew?
Destruction of Huguenots in 1572 became the culmination of the events which changed a situation in political arena of France. Causes of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew:
- The Zhermensky treaty of peace (on August 8, 1570) which Catholics did not recognize.
- Heinrich Navarrsky's wedding with the sister of the king of France Margarita Valois (on August 18, 1572) organized by Ekaterina Medici for fixing of the world between Protestants and Catholics which was approved by neither the Pope, nor the Spanish king Philip II.
- unfortunate attempt to kill the admiral de Colinia (on August 22, 1572).
Mysteries of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew
Describing events of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, authors often forget that prior to it Catholics did not attack Protestants. Huguenots till 1572 arranged more than once break-in of churches during which killed opponents on belief, without looking neither at age, nor at a floor. They rushed into temples, broke crucifixions, destroyed images of Saints, broke bodies. Researchers assume that de Colinia's admiral planned to usurp the power. Using a wedding as a pretext, he called to the capital of noblemen-brothers in faith from all France.
Massacre of St. Bartholomew - consequences
The massacre of St. Bartholomew in France became the last for 30 thousand Huguenots. It did not bring a victory to the ruling yard, and launched new, expensive and cruel religious war. 200 thousand Protestants ran away to England, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Germany. Hardworking people, they were welcomed everywhere. The Huguenot wars in France continued till 1593.
Massacre of St. Bartholomew - the interesting facts
- At night of Saint Varfolomey also Catholics died – uncontrollable slaughter helped some Parisians to deal shortly with the creditors rich with neighbors or the bothered wives.
- The famous people among whom became the victims of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew: composer Claude Kumidel, philosopher Pierre de la Rame, Francois La Rochefoucauld (writer's great-grandfather).
- Terrible death also the apostle Saint Varfolomey died at the beginning of the 1st century. Crucified headfirst, he continued a sermon. Then executioners removed him from a cross, ripped off live skin and beheaded.