Those who are able to swim always take true pleasure from such occupation. And those who are not able envy the first. This art developed and was improved thousands of years thanks to what there are presently different types and styles of swimming about which the speech will go further.
History of emergence and development
It is precisely unknown when the person learned to swim. The first fixings of this occupation are dated several millennia B.C. and are found when studying remains of Ancient Egyptian, Assyrian and Phoenician cultures. In drawings it is visible that our ancestors were able to swim styles as a breast stroke and free and used these abilities in everyday life, hunting on water and fishing, during war and production something from under water. In Ancient Greek culture the ability began to float an integral part of physical development of youth.
Learn how quickly to learn to swim in the pool what muscles work when swimming how to learn correctly to breathe when swimming and what impact swimming has on health of women, men and children.
The beginning of development of swimming as sport it is considered to be 1515. Then in Venice for the first time there took place the competition of swimmers. However only three and a half centuries later in England the first sports organization of fans of this sport was formed. Later, namely — at the very end of the nineteenth century, similar societies began to appear in Europe, America, New Zealand. And during the same period because of popularity of swimming begin to build indoor pools.
Also at the very end of the nineteenth century, namely in 1889, in Vienna there passed the first international swimming championship with participation of representatives from every quarter of Europe. After these competitions began to be held every year and began to be called the European superiority. In seven years in Greece the first Olympic Games which program included swimming started.
Whether you know? At first only men competed at the Olympic Games — awards among women began to play only in 1912.
And before the fifth summer Olympic Games rules of the international organization of swimming which give the detailed description of an order of competitions were approved and establish rules of fixing of records. Today swimming — the integral Olympic discipline in which thirty four sets of awards are played.
Types of swimming
Types of swimming for convenience divide into amateur and training. Further — is wider about the most significant. The following types belong to training:
- Sports views assume heats different styles on different distances. The one who overcomes distance for the smallest period wins, strictly observing the equipment.
- The main characteristic of applied swimming — ability to overcome various obstacles in water. People whose profession is connected with water study it. It can be, for example, divers, rescuers, submariners.
- There are also game types of swimming on which competitions are also held and which even are in the program of the Olympic Games. The most known among them is the water polo.
- Carry art and synchronized swimming to a figured look. Here, as a rule, two or more people carry out on water and under water various, rather difficult figures and elements.
- Special equipment which includes an aqualung, a suit and flippers is necessary for occupations scuba diving. This sport assumes immersion on various depths. Train in it both in the pool, and in open water.
- Diving is carried out both parno, and odinochno. Athletes jump from springboards and towers of different height, performing at the same time various specifications.
Amateur swimming types are medical and improving:
- The first are directed to reduction of an organism in norm after difficult injuries and operations and are carried out only in certain pools under observation of experts-reabilitologov.
- Anyone can be engaged in the second look in any water, only for strengthening of own health.
Important! It is forbidden to be engaged in training types of swimming at any serious and chronic illness. It is possible to be engaged amateur, but only after coordination with the doctor or with participation of the expert.
Basic rules of occupations
If you plan to study or improve swimming skills in the pool, it is necessary to know some rules, namely:
- at visit of the pool the reference from the doctor is obligatory;
- it is obligatory to have individual clothes and footwear for the pool, hygienic accessories;
- before a training and after it it is necessary to take a shower;
- it is recommended to eat in one and a half-two hours before visit of the pool, without the use of products of type of onions or garlic;
- before any occupation it is necessary to warm muscles on the land;
- in the pool it is impossible to run, it can lead to a trauma;
- if you are engaged on a path, it is necessary to choose that according to the opportunities. High-speed paths are closer to the center of the pool;
- on occupations it is necessary to follow the traffic regulation on water. On any path the heat begins on the right side and goes against a hand;
- if it is necessary to cross the pool across, do it carefully, having estimated a situation;
- it is impossible to get on limiters of paths and to hang on them;
- in the pool it is necessary to meet society conditions, that is not to prevent to be engaged in the rest.
Styles of swimming
Four swimming styles are recognized as main — on them various competitions are held, all of them are in the program of the Olympic Games. Technology of performance which needs to be observed strictly at competitions is inherent in everyone. And, actually, than it is higher, the result, as a rule, is better for those.
Whether you know? Professional swimmers shave off all body hair. Thus absolutely aerodynamics slightly raises that helps to improve results of a heat on some fraction of a second.
The style free or free received the name because the heat can be carried out in any way convenient to the athlete. The main thing is to float a certain distance for the shortest time. When swimming developed, swimmers at competitions overcame distances using a breast stroke, styles over-arm and tregen, sazhenka. Athletes used all these types until at the beginning of the twentieth century thanks to Charles Daniels the American crawl did not appear.
After twenty years of improvement it became a freestyle basis. A crawl the most high-speed and fast among all swimming styles. The crawl as follows is carried out: the athlete kind of gets water alternately straight arms along a body. Work of legs reminds scissors, they serially fall and rise. The exhalation occurs in water, and a breath — aside, along with a raising of the corresponding hand.
Video: technology of swimming by freestyle
Technology of swimming by a breast stroke very much reminds movements of a frog in water. It is that two hands are taken out forward and get water towards a body. In the same time the swimmer does a sharp push by legs. Both movements have to be carried out synchronously — in it all essence of style. The head can be both over water, and under it, and hands only under water.
Important! Some say that the most useful style is the crawl, but most of experts nevertheless gives to a breast stroke superiority of the useful status because of smaller load of a backbone. The crawl is so fast that big loading cannot be avoided.
The breast stroke is considered one of the most difficult styles, but at the same time children learn to swim at first like a dog, and then on - frog. It is known since Ancient Greece where it was obligatory discipline in physical training. The breast stroke also possesses some more records: it is the slowest and most useful style of swimming.
Video: as it is correct to float a breast stroke
Among all styles of swimming the butterfly stroke is youngest: it appeared only in 1935. Its second name — a dolphin. During swimming by this style of a leg move like a tail of this sea inhabitant. Equal hands at the same time widely are thrown out with a simultaneous raising of the case forward and up, and then get water. This style is considered the most difficult technically and the most energy-intensive; also it demands difficult coordination and endurance.
Video: technology of swimming by butterfly stroke
On a back
This type of swimming only in which the start is carried out in water. Today swimming on a back is a same crawl, only on the contrary. The similar equipment, only turned: the swimmer, lying in water on a back, serially gets water straight arms, at the same time working legs as scissors. Originally on a back applied the turned breast stroke to swimming, but after a crawl forced out it as was faster.
Video: swimming on a back
As there take place competitions
Sports competitions take place in pools with a length of path of twenty five meters and more. Since the beginning of this century the following competitive system works:
- In the morning preliminary heats are carried out.
- Subsequently swimmers who showed the best time and did not break the equipment get to the following circle.
- In the evening of the same day there take place two semi-finals in which about sixteen people participate. From this quantity there are eight best athletes who will float in the final next day.
- If the swimming distance is very big, eight participants of the final are defined after preliminary heats.
- If athletes show identical results, finalists and semifinalists finally are defined after a reheat.
- If in the final two athletes showed identical time, they share the taken place.
Refereeing of competitions is provided by board at the head of which there is a chief judge or the director of competitions — he takes full responsibility for all process. Enter a judiciary board: the starter, the judge on the finish, the judge on turn, a timekeeper, technical judges. Each of them is responsible for the site of competitions and all of them submit to the chief judge.
Whether you know? The swimmer Martin Strel, according to the Guinness Book of Records, is the most hardy in the area. He floated the Amazon River in sixty six days, having a rest at the same time for five hours a day.
For a long time much attention was paid to swimming. Both training, and amateur occupations this sport for certain will bring huge benefit to an organism. On such occupations all groups of muscles are involved, they as nothing else do a posture correct.